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Styles of the Victorian Period in England and America
(1837 - 1901)

Vocabulary list for these chapters
Pictures for theses chapters
Louis Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright
American Architectural Styles America Furniture Styles
Greek Revival 1800-1860  Transitional (Late Empire) 1830-40ís
Gothic Revival 1820-1860  Gothic Revival 1830-50ís
Octagonal 1850-1870  Rococo Revival 1840-60ís
Stick 1850-1890  Elizabethan Revival/Tudor 1840ís
Second Empire/Mansard 1855-1890 Louis XVI/Second Empire after 1860
Italianate 1860-1890 Renaissance Revival 1850-75
Queen Anne 1875-1910
         Free classical
         Half-timbered gable
         Patterned masonry
Egyptian Revival after 1860
Shingle 1880-1955 Aesthetic Movement 1850-1890ís 
Art Furniture and Eastlake style
Colonial revival 1880-1955
(Colonial styles and Federal styles)
Neoclassical Revival 1890-1950  
Beaus Arts 1885-1930  
Chateauesque 1880-1910  
Richardsonian Romanesque 1880-1940  
Renaissance Revival 1880-1935  
Tudor 1890-1940  
Frank Lloyd Wright and the  Prairie Style 1893-1920
see also Green and Green
Arts & Crafts 1860-1890ís 
Mission Style 1890-1915 (Stickley, Roycrafters
Craftsman 1905-1930
Art Nouveau 1890-1910 Art Nouveau 1890-1910
See also Louis Sullivan  
The definition of these three terms summarize the period:
Historicism seeks to recreate past styles through observation , measured drawings and archaeological information. (see Pugin and Davis)
Romanticism uses past styles to stir emotions of the beholder by associative approach, i.e., Gothic: chivalry and religious connotations. Renaissance: scholarship and association with secular wealth.
Eclecticism unites elements of Historicism and Romanticism. It takes stylistic features from any and all historic periods. It gained wide approval during this time due to its freedom of design. Eclecticism is responsible for chaotic mixtures characterizing most interiors after 1830 and many residential styles of architecture.

Summary Questions: The Victorian Period in England and America

1.Explain how iron developed from a structural element used by engineers into a building system used by architects? What was one of the first large scale building to use this material? Name two benefits realized by using iron structural supports in buildings instead of traditional brick or masonry? how were the exteriors of these building treated?

2.As capitalism grew, why were International Exhibitions needed? Name two major structures erected for these events. What purpose did they serve?

3.Be able to identify the following Victorian Furniture styles;
    Transitional/Late Empire
    Rococo Revival (John Henry Belter)
    Renaissance Revival
    Gothic Revival
    Elizabethan/Tudor Revival
    Louis XVI Revival
    Egyptian Revival
    Arts and Crafts Furniture: Morris et al, Voysey, Baillie-Scott, Stickley, Roycrafters, Green and Green, etc.
    Art/Aesthetic Furniture: Eastlake Hints on Household Taste, Talbert, Burges, Godwin, Collcut
    Thonet Furniture

4.Be able to identify and/or name 6 innovations of the Victorian period.

5.Be able to name and/or identify 8 new materials used for furniture.

6.Be able to identify the following architectural styles and their visual characteristics:
    Gothic Revival
    Renaissance Revival
    Second Empire/Mansard Style
    Octagon Style
    Stick Style
    Queen Anne Style and the subtypes
    Chateauesque Style
    Georgian/Colonial revival
    Jacobethan/Tudor Revival
    Shingle Style
    Richardsonian Romanesque
    Beaus Arts Classicism
    Neoclassical Revival

7.Discuss the Arts and Crafts Movement in England. Who were its founders? What were the influences behind the style? How did they view the machine in the production of furniture?  How did this view thwart their ultimate goal? Describe the architecture and furniture of this style in terms of their visual characteristics.

8. Discuss the Aesthetic Movement in England. What did it promote? How did it view the machine in the process of furniture production? What were the influences behind the style? How did it differ from the Arts and Crafts movement? What is art furniture?

9. Who was Thonet? What process did he patent? Why would he be considered an early pioneer in modern furniture production?

10.Who was H.H. Richardson? What was characteristic of his style of architecture and furniture?

11.Discuss the furniture of Gustav Stickley. What are the visual characteristics? How did he promote his furniture?

12.Discuss the firm of McKim, Mead and White. How did their style change? What were some of their most important works discussed in this class?

13.Discuss the style of Richard Morris Hunt. What were two of his most important works discussed in this class?
Syllabus Neoclassical Art Nouveau Sullivan & Wright Modern Contact Marg